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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-72

Evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of various concentration of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) extract against Gram-positive bacteria: An in vitro study

1 Department of Public Health, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Dr D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral Health Research, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Oral Health Research, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Ladusingh Rajpurohit
Department of Public Health, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Dr D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.161204

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Introduction: The increases in multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a challenge to the researcher to develop newer natural and active components to combat these problems in future. Hence this study was undertaken to determine the anti-microbial activity of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) extract against Gram-positive bacteria. Materials and Methods: Experimental design, in vitro study, lab setting. Wheat grass powder (T. aestivum) was obtained from the pharmacy in Belgaum city. Ethanolic extract of wheat grass powder was prepared by cold extract method. The extract was then diluted by inert solvent, dimethyl formaldehyde, to obtain different concentration of extract. The extract, along with the concentrations of range 1-10, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration of the extract will give a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration by broth dilution method was found to be 5% of extract for S. mutans and 1.25% for Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion: Wheat grass extract demonstrated anti-microbial activity against S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp.

Keywords: Anti-microbial activity, Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Triticum aestivum, wheat grass extract

How to cite this article:
Rajpurohit L, Mehta N, Ankola AV, Gadiyar A. Evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of various concentration of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) extract against Gram-positive bacteria: An in vitro study. J Dent Res Rev 2015;2:70-2

How to cite this URL:
Rajpurohit L, Mehta N, Ankola AV, Gadiyar A. Evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of various concentration of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) extract against Gram-positive bacteria: An in vitro study. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Mar 29];2:70-2. Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2015/2/2/70/161204

  Introduction Top

Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. Microorganisms play a major role in the aetiology of dental caries. There is significant evidence that suggests that Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. is the perpetrator microorganisms responsible for causation of dental caries. Elimination of these microorganisms will help in prevention of dental caries to a larger extent. [1]

The onus of the dental researcher is to come up with innovative, feasible and affordable medicament to reduce and manage the effect of caries causing microorganism. [2]

Nature is the best way to medicine. Various infectious diseases have been known to be guarded by herbal remedies that have been proven variously since ancient to present time. [3]

Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern. [4] The clinical efficiency of many existing antibiotics is being threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. [5] There is a urgent need to develop newer anti-microbial compounds which are more active against newer and re-emerging infectious diseases. [6]

The plant Triticum aestivum belonging to family Gramineae is an easily grown plant, the young stems had proven effect for the treatment of biliousness, intoxication, remove skin blemishes. The fruit has antipyretic, antihydrotic and sedative. T. aestivum have been also used against cough, sore throat, malaise, spasmic pain and abdominal coldness, constipation and. The plant is also known to have anticancer and anti-microbial properties. [7],[8]

However no studies have been reported in the literature to evaluate the anti-microbial activity of wheat grass (T. aestivum) extract in the oral flora. This study is being attempted to evaluate the anti-microbial activity on various concentration of wheat grass (T. aestivum) extract against Gram- and Gram-negative bacteria.

  Materials and Methods Top

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the wheat grass extract was determined by broth dilution method against bacterial culture.

The wheat grass powder was obtained from the pharmacy. Fifty milligram of the wheat grass (T. aestivum) powdered sample was weighed and added to 250 ml of ethanol in a conical flask. The flask was kept for incubation for 5 days with occasional shaking. The sample was then filtered using muslin cloth. The filtrate was again filtered using Whatman no. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was collected and poured into wide glass petriplate and kept for drying in hot air oven at 400°C. The dried extract was collected and further used to determine its anti-microbial activity. MIC of the extract against S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. by broth dilution method.

  • Media: Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth
  • Culture/inoculum: S. mutans, and Lactobacillus spp
  • Stock solutions of the extract: 10% (50 mg in 500 μl DMSO).

Nine dilutions of extract were done with BHI for MIC. In the initial tube only 200 μl of extract was added. For dilutions 200 μl of BHI broth was added into the next 9 tubes separately. In the second tube 200 μl of extract was added which already contains 200 μl of BHI broth. This was considered as 10-1 dilution. From 10 to 1 diluted tube 200 μl was transferred to third tube to make 10-2 dilution. The serial dilution was repeated up to 10-8 dilution for each extract. From the maintained stock cultures of required organisms, 5 μl was taken and added into 2 ml of BHI broth. In each serially diluted tube 200 μl of above culture suspension was added. The last tube contains only the media and culture suspension. The tubes were kept for incubation for 24 h at 370°C in bacteriological incubator and observed for turbidity [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Procedure for MIC of Triticum aestivum by serial broth dilution method

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  Results Top

  • MIC by Broth Dilution method
  • S. mutans: 5% of extract
  • Lactobacillus spp.: 1.25% of extract [Table 1].
    Table 1: MIC of Triticum aestivum by serial broth dilution method

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  Discussion Top

The chemical composition of wheat grass is highly complex, containing many nutrients and other biological active compounds, the proportion of which may vary considerably between strains and even between the plants of the same field. [9]

A number of plants are used as folk remedies in the various parts of the world. Although a significant number of studies have been carried out to obtain purified plant component, lesser screening field trials have been initiated on crude plant materials. [10]

Phytochemical analysis of T. aestivum extracts have showen the presence of bioactive components like terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and saponins contributing to its anti-microbial activity.

In this study ethanol was used as a solvent because the essential oils in wheat grass are more soluble in alcohol when compared to distilled water. Dimethyl formamide, an inert solvent, was used to dilute the extract to neutralize the effect of alcohol, which itself is an antiseptic, attributing the outcome to be solely of wheat grass.

In the present study anti-microbial activity of T. aestivum plant extracts was studied and was tested against Gram-positive S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. at different concentrations of the extracts to understand the most effective activity. The zone of inhibition obtained was dose dependent. The results of the current study could not be compared with that of the other studies as this is the first study of its kind.

  Conclusion Top

Traditional plants may represent new sources of anti-microbial with stable. T. aestivum (wheat grass) showed maximum anti-microbial activity against S. mutans 1.25% and Lactobacillus spp. Five percent of extract at and respectively. Further studies are recommended for assessing its use both in clinical and field setting.

  References Top

Balakrishnan M, Simmonds RS, Tagg JR. Dental caries is a preventable infectious disease. Aust Dent J 2000;45:235-45.  Back to cited text no. 1
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564-82.  Back to cited text no. 2
Tanaka H, Sato M, Fujiwara S, Hirata M, Etoh H, Takeuchi H. Antibacterial activity of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lett Appl Microbiol 2002;35:494-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Westh H, Zinn CS, Rosdahl VT. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries. Microb Drug Resist 2004;10:169-76.  Back to cited text no. 4
Bandow JE, Brötz H, Leichert LI, Labischinski H, Hecker M. Proteomic approach to understanding antibiotic action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:948-55.  Back to cited text no. 5
Rojas A, Hernandez L, Pereda-Miranda R, Mata R. Screening for antimicrobial activity of crude drug extracts and pure natural products from Mexican medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;35:275-83.  Back to cited text no. 6
Duke JA, Ayensu ES. Medicinal Plants of the World. Algonac, MI (USA): Reference Publications; 1985.  Back to cited text no. 7
NISCIR, CSIR. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of the Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Vol. 5. New Delhi: NISCIR, CSIR; 2004. p. 276.  Back to cited text no. 8
Shirude AA. Phytochemical and pharmacological screening of wheat grass juice (Triticum aestivum L). Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;9:159-64.  Back to cited text no. 9
Singh A, Sharma US, Sharma UK, Mishra V, Ranjan S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Triticum aestivum straw extracts. Int J Drug Discov 2010;2:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 10


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

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