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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 124-128

Evaluation of oral manifestations and oral health status among pediatric human immunodeficiency virus patients-under anti-retroviral therapy: A cross-sectional study

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mahatma Gandhi Postgraduate Institute, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Monika Aroquiadasse
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mahatma Gandhi Postgraduate Institute, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.200017

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Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome disease has evolved to become a social and economic catastrophe, with far-reaching implications affecting every phase of life of the diseased individual. Data on adults and children diagnosed with HIV infection are useful for determining populations needing prevention and treatment services. Oral lesions may be the presenting symptoms of HIV infection and may differ entirely from those manifested in the adult population. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV related oral lesions among pediatric HIV patients and to assess the oral health status of HIV infected children residing in a selected childcare facility in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2015 in child care facility for HIV infected children located in Puducherry U.T, India. All children <18 years, who are diagnosed with HIV infection and are put on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or pre-ART care, were included in the study. After obtaining informed consent from the care-givers and assent of the children, they were interviewed and examined by a team comprising a qualified dental surgeon and a trained physician. Results: Majority of the children were under first-line ART (73%) and were on ART for more than 4 years. The CD4 count of 23 (52.3) was between 500–1000 cells/μL. The recent viral load assay in 32 (72.7) patients was <150/not detected. Tooth decay was the most common oral manifestation with 28 (63.6) being affected. Nonspecific lymphadenopathy 26 (59.1) was the most common coexisting systemic illness. Conclusion: This study proves that constant surveillance by monitoring the general health status, CD4 counts, viral load coupled with stringent ART care has improved the overall quality of life of these children and consequently resulted in lesser oral manifestations.

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