• Users Online: 497
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 173-179

Comprehensive management of molar–incisor–hypomineralization by preventive, palliative, and restorative treatment modalities in a pediatric patient: A case report and literature review

Private Pediatric Dental Practice, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission10-Jan-2022
Date of Decision11-Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance23-Apr-2022
Date of Web Publication22-Aug-2022

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Kamran Khan
Hamdard Nagar A, Civil Line, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_9_22

Rights and Permissions

Molar–incisor–hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of enamel dental tissue caused by the disturbances in the maturation stage of amelogenesis. It usually affects the permanent first molars and incisors. In children, MIH condition clinically appears as the demarcated discolored hypomineralized defects of affected teeth, post-eruptive breakdown (PEB) of affected enamel, dentine exposure, hypersensitivity, increased susceptibility to dental caries and behavioral management challenges owing to dental anxiety/fear and dental esthetic concerns. This case report describes the comprehensive dental management of MIH in an 8-year-old male pediatric patient by conservative and noninvasive treatment approach with preventive, palliative, and restorative treatment modalities under nonpharmacological behavior management techniques.

Keywords: Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, GC tooth mousse, minimal invasive dentistry, molar–incisor–hypomineralization, nonpharmacological behavior management techniques, preventive dentistry, restorative dentistry, silver diamine fluoride, SMART, stainless steel crowns

How to cite this article:
Khan MK. Comprehensive management of molar–incisor–hypomineralization by preventive, palliative, and restorative treatment modalities in a pediatric patient: A case report and literature review. J Dent Res Rev 2022;9:173-9

How to cite this URL:
Khan MK. Comprehensive management of molar–incisor–hypomineralization by preventive, palliative, and restorative treatment modalities in a pediatric patient: A case report and literature review. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 28];9:173-9. Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2022/9/2/173/354211

  Introduction Top

Oral health is considered pivotal for the overall health and development of the growing children. Morbidity associated with orodental problems influences the children's quality of life along with functions and esthetics. One such dental disease is molar–incisor–hypomineralization (MIH), which is known to affect young permanent teeth in pediatric age group, which has been reported in the dental literature.[1] MIH causes detrimental impact on the oral health-related quality of life along with substantially increased negative self-perception of oral manifestations.[1] The term “MIH” was well described by Weerheijm et al. in 2001 and also defined it as “demarcated, qualitative developmental defects of systemic origin of the enamel of one or more permanent first molar with or without affecting permanent incisors.”[2] The cusp tips of permanent canines and premolars have been reported to be affected with MIH condition.[3],[4],[5] Furthermore, it has been reported that when hypomineralized second primary molar is present in an individual, there is 50% probability of occurrence of MIH in the first permanent molar.[4],[6]

Globally, a wide variation in the prevalence of MIH has been reported, which ranges from 2.8% to 40.2%.[7],[8] The exact etiology of MIH is still unclear but is regarded to be multifactorial.[4],[7],[8],[9] The several etiological factors for MIH have been reported, such as systemic conditions, environmental factors (prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal disturbances), and also the genetic factors.[4],[7],[8],[9] Researches have reported that the causative factors for MIH influence the amelogenesis stage during the third trimester of gestation and the first 3 years of life of affected child.[8],[10]

MIH condition may result in posteruptive breakdown (PEB) of effected enamel, and thereby, dentine exposure leads to hypersensitivity, increased susceptibility to dental caries, dental unesthetic appearance of deformed teeth, behavioral management challenges for a clinician due to dental anxiety/fear in children, along with psychosocial problems, and affected school's academic performances.[8],[9] Furthermore, the limited/minimal favorable cooperation of young pediatric patients toward dental treatment, difficulty in achieving adequate anesthesia of affected teeth, and repeated or recurrent episodes of the marginal breakdown of dental restorations have been some of the reasons for challenging the management of MIH among children.[8],[9]

Early recognition, adequate understanding, and appropriate treatment of MIH-affected teeth in children are critical for the long-term favorable prognosis of the delivered dental treatment. Till date, a very limited number of clinical case reports have been published in literature regarding the comprehensive and appropriate dental management of MIH cases without requiring general anesthesia and injected local anesthesia in young children.

The current article describes the dental treatment of the MIH-affected teeth with conservative and minimally invasive dentistry approach by preventive and restorative treatment modalities. In this case report, an 8-year-old male child with MIH was managed successfully with palliative, preventive, and restorative dental treatment modalities by employing the nonpharmacological behavior management techniques (BMTs). The dentinal hypersensitivity was assessed using the Schiff cold air sensitivity scale.[10],[11] The manuscript of this case report has been written as per the CARE checklist case reporting guidelines.

  Case Report Top

An 8-year-old male patient presented with a chief complaint of sensitivity to cold and hot food and brownish discoloration of the back teeth for 2 years. The patient's dental history revealed that permanent first molar and central incisors had erupted with irregular coronal structure with yellow-brownish discoloration and dentinal sensitivity to hot/cold food. The patient's parents also revealed that their child has difficulty in brushing teeth in affected molars due to sensitivity to strokes of toothbrush's bristles.

Medical history revealed that during 1–1.5 years of age, the patient had suffered illness with frequent episodes of fever and diarrhea and for which took medications (antibiotics). Later, the patient's parents noticed the symptoms of MIH in erupting permanent teeth such as deformed and discolored teeth with sensitivity to thermal stimuli. The patient's family and psychosocial history was not remarkable.

On general physical examination, patient was found apparently healthy. Extra-oral examination findings were normal. On intra-oral examination, localized brownish-discolorations were observed on the labial surface of partially-erupted permanent central incisors i.e 11, 21, 31 and 41 [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b. In addition, Localized brownish discoloration and irregular occlusal surface with wearing and post-eruptive breakdown (PEB) of the enamel of permanent first molars i.e 16, 26, 36 and 46 were found [Figure 1]c and [Figure 1]d. Dentinal hypersensitivity was assessed by using Schiff's scale and thus, scores of 03 for the MIH-affected molars while 01 for the incisors were recorded. Patient was in mixed-dentition stage [Figure 1]a, [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]c, [Figure 1]d. Periodontal and oral mucosa examination findings were normal. Patient had poor oral hygiene index (OHI) with higher plaque index (PI) and debris index (DI) scores.
Figure 1: Pre-operative images showing the Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralization (MIH); (a and b) MIH-affected young erupting maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors i.e. 11,21,31 and 41; (c and d) MIH-affected upper and lower permanent first molars i.e. 16,26,36 and 46

Click here to view

Dental radiographic examination demonstrated the reduced radio-opacity of the enamel of the MIH-affected permanent first molars and erupting central incisors [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Furthermore, no pulpal or periradicular involvement was present. The patient showed positive and cooperative behavior as per the Frankl's behavior rating scale.
Figure 2: Pre-operative radiographs (a and b) of MIH-affected young permanent upper and lower central incisor teeth showing reduced radio-density (radio-opacity) of enamel tissue in coronal structure i.e. hypomineralized enamel

Click here to view
Figure 3: Pre-operative radiographs (a-c) of MIH-affected permanent first molars showing reduced radio-opacity of enamel tissue over occlusal surface i.e. hypomineralized enamel

Click here to view

The differential diagnosis included MIH, enamel hypoplasia, Turner's hypoplasia, dental fluorosis, and amelogenesis imperfecta. Based on the patient's relevant medical and dental history along with the oral examination and radiographical findings, a clinical diagnosis of MIH was determined (as per the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry [EAPD] Diagnostic criteria of MIH, 2021).[12] The degree of involvement of the affected molars and central incisors teeth with MIH was described as severe and mild, respectively, in accordance with the EAPD criteria.[12]

The patient's parents were informed about the MIH diagnosis and its treatment options and prognosis. The patient and parents were counseled and educated about the MIH condition and were motivated for proper treatment and longer follow-ups. Considering the patient's age, compliance, cooperation level, behavior management, and early mixed dentition stage with clinical presentation of MIH in newly erupted young permanent first molars with partially erupted incisors, the suitable treatment plan following the minimal invasive and preventive dentistry approach with the nonpharmacological BMT was determined. In addition, the appropriate treatment plan was made in view of GRADE rating system of MIH.[12] Before the commencement of the dental treatment, informed consent was obtained from the parents.

First dental visit

Clinical examination, treatment planning, diet counseling, and oral hygiene advices were given to the patient and parents. Fluoridated toothpaste (Kidodent, Indoco Remedies Ltd., Mumbai, India) was prescribed for brushing. Behavior shaping methods (desensitization and modeling technique) were employed such that the patient was made familiar with the dental clinic environment and dental staff and also was shown other cooperative pediatric patients who were receiving dental treatment comfortably on dental chair.

Second dental visit

Oral prophylaxis with manual scaling was done. 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) (FAgamin, 38% SDF, Argentina) was applied over the affected molars 16, 26, 36, and 46 by brush-on technique under rubber dam isolation.[11],[13],[14],[15],[16] Remineralizing agent casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (GC tooth mousse, GC, Tokyo, Japan) was advised for self-application at home on the partially erupting teeth 11, 21, 31, and 41. Tell–show–do (TSD) method was employed to keep the patient cooperative and relaxed during the dental procedures performed. Dental operatory room's environment was maintained relaxed with soothing and soft music.

Third and subsequent dental visits

Preformed stainless steel (SS) crowns (3M ESPE) were placed over the severely MIH-affected molars with glass ionomer cement (GIC) (GC Fuji-I) according to the Hall's technique [Figure 4] and [Figure 5]. Partially erupted incisors received professionally applied fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector N, Ivoclar Vivadent) under rubber dam isolation. TSD technique approach and audiovisual distraction (dental-chair-mounted AU audio–video screen device) were employed for having favorable and positive cooperation for performing the appropriate dental treatment procedures.
Figure 4: Post-operative images (a and b) demonstrating the restorative rehabilitation of MIH-affected first molars by preformed stainless steel crown (3M ESPE) using GIC luting cement after application of SDF solution, Fluoride agent was applied on partially erupted incisors

Click here to view
Figure 5: Post-operative radiographic images (a-d) of the molars after SS crown cementation with GIC luting cement

Click here to view

In follow-up visits, the patient reported significant relief from dentinal hypersensitivity after the treatment. The patient and parents were satisfied with the favorable outcomes of dental treatment provided for MIH-affected teeth. The patient has been kept on long-term follow-up of 3-month interval for clinical evaluation of the treated teeth till their complete eruption and for rendering the definitive and esthetic restoration on growth completion and gingival margin stability.

  Discussion Top

Clinical manifestation of MIH is characterized by well-demarcated discoloration/opacities ranging from creamy/white to yellow/brown, seldom in association with posteruptive enamel breakdown of the affected teeth.[11],[17] Histologically, these MIH-associated defects are highly porous, mainly in the deeper aspect of the enamel tissue.[11],[18] The histopathological researches on MIH have reported that the hypomineralization in MIH-affected teeth begins at the amelodentinal junction and not from the surface of enamel during amelogenesis in contrast to other types of enamel structural defects.[8] It has been reported in literature that the MIH affected enamel has 20% decreased concentration of minerals.[8] Furthermore that the protein concentration in MIH-affected enamel is 3-15 folds (times) greater in comparison to sound enamel.[8]

In the present case, severely MIH-affected molars showed brownish discoloration and wearing with PEB of enamel of occlusal surfaces of the molars.

It has been reported in literature that teeth with MIH demonstrate the porous subsurface enamel, and hence, the dentine in the affected teeth might be exposed by PEB. Consequently, the hypersensitivity to thermal stimulus (cold/hot food), air blow or during tooth brushing is experienced.[11] In the current case also, patient reported dentinal hypersensitivity to cold food and during tooth brushing in the MIH-affected teeth.

Various clinical classifications for the MIH have been described in literature. One of the classification systems (Mathu-Muju and Wright) divides MIH into three categories, i.e., mild, moderate, and severe type based on various clinical factors, for example, the degree/severity of MIH defects, presence or absence of PEB of enamel and hypersensitivity, etc.[4] In the current case, the molars were found affected with severe type of MIH condition whereas, partially erupting young incisors with moderate type of MIH condition. Similarly, severity level of incisors and molars were determined as mild and severe respectively as per the latest EAPD criteria of MIH.[12]

In recent years, a MIH treatment need index has been introduced, which is based on the two factors, hypersensitivity and PEB.[19] The clinical manifestation of MIH was first classified by the EAPD in 2003.[20]

In literature, several etiological factors for MIH development have been described mainly linked to systemic, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal complications.[7],[8],[9] Most commonly reported causative factors for MIH are cyanosis, childhood morbidities/diseases (measles, mumps, and chickenpox), respiratory diseases, ear infections, frequent use of antibiotics, gastrointestinal diseases disease, low birth weight, malnutrition, prematurity (premature birth), calcium phosphate metabolic disorders, and prolonged breastfeeding.[7],[8],[9] Furthermore, genetic etiology with MIH (genes involved TUFT1, TUFT11, ENAM, and AMELX) has also been reported in the literature.[7],[8],[9] Although the cause of MIH is not clear, the clinical manifestation of localized (demarcated) and asymmetrical lesions indicates the systemic origin with the disturbance in the amelogenesis process that most possibly occurring in the early maturation stage or even earlier at the late secretory phase of enamel development.

Early and accurate diagnosis of MIH is of paramount importance to provide appropriate and prompt dental treatment and that can be accomplished by detecting the characteristic clinical pattern/features of MIH defects in the affected teeth along with significant medical history.[9] In the present case also, the patient had typical clinical features of MIH along with medical history of several episodes of illness (fever/diarrhea) and medications (antibiotics) in the very early childhood and, thus, confirmed the clinical diagnosis of MIH.

The management of the MIH condition has been a challenge for the clinicians due to many reasons, such as difficulty in attaining adequate anesthesia in the MIH-affected teeth, dentinal hypersensitivity and rapid development/progression of carious lesions in hypomineralized tooth surface, frequent marginal breakdown of dental restorations, and the challenge of having favorable cooperative behavior from child patient for delivering dental treatment effectively.[21] It has been reported in some studies that children with MIH display greater dental anxiety and behavior management problems as compared to unaffected children, and consequently, treatment is usually performed in sedation or general anesthesia.[22],[23] In the present case, the dental treatment was provided successfully and effectively by employing the nonpharmacological BMT such as modeling, TSD method (desensitization method), parental presence, and distraction method.

Various dental treatment modalities have been described in literature, such as prevention approach, palliative treatment, restorative treatment, and extraction.[24] Dental treatment approaches for MIH-affected teeth depend on several clinical factors, such as stage of eruption of the MIH-affected tooth, degree of severity of hypomineralization defect, age, and cooperation level of the child.[25],[26],[27]

In the present clinical case, restorative treatment of severely affected permanent molars was done with preformed SS crown following the conservative and minimally invasive dentistry approach of Hall's technique, and the preventive treatment was rendered for partially erupted incisors by professionally applied fluoride varnish agent and application of remineralizing agent CPP-ACP (GC tooth mouse) at home along with oral hygiene maintenance with ultrasoft toothbrush, diet chart, and regular follow-up evaluations.

The preventive treatment of hypomineralized teeth in MIH can be done using fluoride varnish, NaF-mouthwash, fluoride tooth-paste, CPP-ACP (casein phosphopepetide-amorphous calcium phosphate).[8] The constituents of CPP ACP agent enhance the bioavailability of tooth minerals (calcium and phosphate and fluoride ions) in the saliva, and thus hypomineralized defects get remineralized.[8] The CPP-ACP agent has been suggested to use in newly erupted MIH-affected tooth. Tooth Mousse contains 10% CPP-ACP.[8] Pasini et al. observed a significant reduction in tooth sensitivity problem after 4-month use of tooth mousse in MIH-affected teeth.[27],[28] In the current case, CPP-ACP remineralizing agent was used on the partially erupting incisors to remineralize and to provide relief in the dentinal sensitivity problem as suggested in the existing literature.[29] Other effective products, such as Enamelon gel (970 ppm fluoride and ACP) and Novamin-containing toothpaste, have been reported to enhance remineralization of the affected enamel and to reduce the sensitivity of hypomineralized teeth.[8],[30],[31]

Preformed SS crowns as full-coverage restoration are used in children for MIH affected teeth because these crowns prevent further loss of tooth structure (i.e. maintain the structural integrity), control dentinal hypersensitivity, halt recurrent dental caries, provide proper interproximal contacts and establish harmonious occlusal relationships with antagonist teeth, impart longevity (durability) to restoration, are also comparatively less expensive and require relatively lesser technique sensitive placement procedure.[8],[9],[32] SS-crown can preserve MIH-affected teeth in asymptomatic state until definitive final restorations are possible to place appropriately.[8],[9]

Other treatment options for MIH-affected permanent molars have been described such as resin infiltration, restorations (GIC, resin-modified GIC [RMGIC], resin composite), full or partial coverage crowns (SS-crown, onlays), and extraction of severely MIH-affected molar with orthodontic alignment.[8]

The various treatment options for MIH-affected young permanent incisors have been described in literature, such as microabrasion, bleaching, etch–bleach–seal technique, resin infiltration, composite restorations, and porcelain veneers.[8]

SMART technique is a recent innovation in dentistry that combines the advantages of SDF and GIC. This SMART approach has been used for MIH-affected molars.[11],[14] SDF is known for treating dentinal hypersensitivity, remineralization, and arresting the incipient caries.[11],[14] In the present case also, GIC (GC Fuji I) was placed over SDF before the placement of SS crown on MIH-affected teeth. It helped in reducing dentinal sensitivity problem, inducing remineralization of hypomineralized enamel, and preventing any possible subclinical incipient caries of affected teeth.

GIC or RMGIC restorations can be regarded only as an intermediate (interim) restorative approach until definitive restoration is placed. However, a reduced adhesion of GIC is found due to enamel developmental defects, for example, MIH. Beside the marginal breakdown and early loss/dislodgement of the GIC filling, the recurrent caries are also commonly seen.[25]

Although composite restoration for MIH-teeth is vastly described in literature, significantly reduced bond strength between affected enamel and composite interface has been found due to increased protein content in the affected enamel.[4] Deproteinization of enamel was suggested as a technique to increase the bond strength with composite resin; however, it has weak evidence.[4] In 2013, “The D3 Group” was launched to provide education resources, knowledge, and updates regarding the developmental dental defects, especially MIH.[8]

This article also highlights the importance and acceptability of nonpharmacological methods of behavior management in delivering the optimum dental care to children as reported in previous studies.[33] Pharmacological techniques including sedation and general anesthesia have been reported as lesser acceptable methods for behavior management methods in children.[30] Newer methods such as audiovisual distraction can be used as nonpharmacological ways for having cooperative dental behavior without any anxiety/stress in child patients.[34],[35],[36]

  Conclusion Top

The present case report showed the successful and comprehensive dental management of MIH in a young child patient by preventive and restorative dentistry with conservative and noninvasive dentistry approach following the nonpharmacological BMT. MIH in young children should be detected early and suitable dental treatment should be provided as per the clinical condition of the affected teeth.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient's parents have given their consent for the patient's images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient's parents understand that the patient's name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Portella PD, Menoncin BL, de Souza JF, de Menezes JV, Fraiz FC, Assunção LR. Impact of molar incisor hypomineralization on quality of life in children with early mixed dentition: A hierarchical approach. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29:496-506.  Back to cited text no. 1
Weerheijm KL, Jälevik B, Alaluusua S. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation. Caries Res 2001;35:390-1.  Back to cited text no. 2
Vieira AR, Kup E. On the etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization. Caries Res 2016;50:166-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Elhussein M, Jamal H. Molar incisor hypomineralisation-to extract or to restore beyond the optimal age? Children (Basel) 2020;7:91.  Back to cited text no. 4
Schmalfuss A, Stenhagen KR, Tveit AB, Crossner CG, Espelid I. Canines are affected in 16-year-olds with molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): An epidemiological study based on the Tromsø study: “Fit Futures”. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2016;17:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 5
Mittal R, Chandak S, Chandwani M, Singh P, Pimpale J. Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016;6:34-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Oliveira RS, Damin DF, Casagrande L, Rodrigues JA. Molar incisor hypomineralization: Three case reports and discussion of etiology, diagnosis, and management strategies. Stomatos 2013;19:4-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
Almuallem Z, Busuttil-Naudi A. Molar incisor hypo-mineralisation (MIH) – An overview. Br Dent J 2018;225:601-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Zameer M, Peeran SA, Basheer SN, Peeran SW, Birajdar SB, Alzahrani FM, et al. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a child with congenital chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO). Case Rep Dent 2020;2020:8894657.  Back to cited text no. 9
Schiff T, Delgado E, Zhang YP, Cummins D, DeVizio W, Mateo LR. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of an in-office desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in providing instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. Am J Dent 2009;22:8A-15A.  Back to cited text no. 10
Ballikaya E, Unverdi GE, Cehreli ZC. Management of initial carious lesions of hypomineralized molars (MIH) with silver diamine fluoride or silver-modified atraumatic restorative treatment (SMART): 1-year results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig 2022;26:2197-205.  Back to cited text no. 11
Lygidakis NA, Garot E, Somani C, Taylor GD, Rouas P, Wong FS. Best clinical practice guidance for clinicians dealing with children presenting with molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH): An updated European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry policy document. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2022;23:3-21.  Back to cited text no. 12
Yannam SD, Mallela D. A preventive approach to molar incisor hypomineralization. Dimens Dent Hyg 2021;19:36-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
MacLean J. Minimally invasive treatment for molar incisor hypomineralization. J Multidiscip Care Decis Dent 2018;4:18-23.  Back to cited text no. 14
Contractor IA, Girish MS, Indira MD. Silver diamine fluoride: Extending the spectrum of preventive dentistry, a literature review. Pediatr Dent J 2021;31:17-24.  Back to cited text no. 15
Nuvvula S, Mallineni SK. Silver diamine fluoride in pediatric dentistry. J South Asian Assoc Pediatr Dent 2019;2:73-80.  Back to cited text no. 16
Da Costa-Silva CM, Ambrosano GM, Jeremias F, De Souza JF, Mialhe FL. Increase in severity of molar-incisor hypomineralization and its relationship with the colour of enamel opacity: A prospective cohort study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011;21:333-41.  Back to cited text no. 17
Jälevik B, Norén JG. Enamel hypomineralization of permanent first molars: A morphological study and survey of possible aetiological factors. Int J Paediatr Dent 2000;10:278-89.  Back to cited text no. 18
Steffen R, Krämer N, Bekes K. The Würzburg MIH concept: The MIH treatment need index (MIH TNI): A new index to assess and plan treatment in patients with molar incisior hypomineralisation (MIH). Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2017;18:355-61.  Back to cited text no. 19
Weerheijm KL, Duggal M, Mejàre I, Papagiannoulis L, Koch G, Martens LC, et al. Judgement criteria for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in epidemiologic studies: A summary of the European meeting on MIH held in Athens, 2003. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003;4:110-3.  Back to cited text no. 20
Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of early diagnosis of molar incisor hypomineralization in children and review of its clinical presentation, etiology and management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5:190-6.  Back to cited text no. 21
Jälevik B, Klingberg GA. Dental treatment, dental fear and behaviour management problems in children with severe enamel hypomineralization of their permanent first molars. Int J Paediatr Dent 2002;12:24-32.  Back to cited text no. 22
Humphreys J, Albadri S. Management of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): A 1-year retrospective study in a specialist secondary care centre in the UK. Children (Basel) 2020;7:252.  Back to cited text no. 23
Costa-Silva CM, Mialhe FL. Considerations for clinical management of molar-incisor hypomineralization: A literature review. Rev Odonto Cienc 2012;27:333-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
de Oliveira DC, Favretto CO, Cunha RF. Molar incisor hypomineralization: Considerations about treatment in a controlled longitudinal case. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:152-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
Fayle SA. Molar incisor hypomineralisation: Restorative management. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003;4:121-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Davidovich E, Dagon S, Tamari I, Etinger M, Mijiritsky E. An innovative treatment approach using digital Workflow and CAD-CAM part 2: The restoration of molar incisor hypomineralization in children. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:1499.  Back to cited text no. 27
Pasini M, Giuca MR, Scatena M, Gatto R, Caruso S. Molar incisor hypomineralization treatment with casein phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate in children. Minerva Stomatol 2018;67:20-5.  Back to cited text no. 28
Ghanim A, Silva MJ, Elfrink ME, Lygidakis NA, Mariño RJ, Weerheijm KL, et al. Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) training manual for clinical field surveys and practice. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2017;18:225-42.  Back to cited text no. 29
Comisi JC, Sauro S. Overview on molar-incisor hypo-mineralisation (MIH): Treatment and preventive approaches. Dent Biomater Sci Res 2016;1:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 30
Abbasi Z, Bahrololoom M, Shariat M, Bagheri R. Bioactive glasses in dentistry: A review. J Dent Biomater 2015;2:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
Taylor GD, Pearce KF, Vernazza CR. Management of compromised first permanent molars in children: Cross-Sectional analysis of attitudes of UK general dental practitioners and specialists in paediatric dentistry. Int J Paediatr Dent 2019;29:267-80.  Back to cited text no. 32
Rahman MT, Kamarudin A, Eusufzai SZ, Mamat N, Irfani bin Zakaria AS, Karobari MI. Acceptability of different behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry: A study of Chinese, Indian and Malay parents. Int J Curr Res Rev 2021;13:157-61.  Back to cited text no. 33
Silva MV, Bussadori SK, Santos EM, Rezende KM. Behaviour management of the contemporary child in paediatric dentistry: An overview of the research. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clín Integr 2021;21:e0209.  Back to cited text no. 34
Kaur R, Jindal R, Dua R, Mahajan S, Sethi K, Garg S. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015;33:192-203.  Back to cited text no. 35
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Khandelwal M, Shetty RM, Rath S. Effectiveness of distraction techniques in managing pediatric dental patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12:18-24.  Back to cited text no. 36


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Case Report
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded23    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal