Journal of Dental Research and Review

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 67--68

Robotics in dentistry: Fiction or reality


B Divya Bhat, Shruthi Bhandary, Rajaram Naik, Divya Shetty 
 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, A J Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
B Divya Bhat
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, A J Institute of Dental Sciences, Kuntikana, Mangalore - 575 004, Karnataka
India

Abstract

Robots, the most wonderful invention of human being, have made its way into dentistry. The necessary technologies have been developed and experimented which would help it to be adapted in dentistry. With unmatched precision and ability to work without fatigue, robots are the most useful applications of robotic technology. The main aim of this paper is to review the application of robotics in dentistry.



How to cite this article:
Bhat B D, Bhandary S, Naik R, Shetty D. Robotics in dentistry: Fiction or reality.J Dent Res Rev 2017;4:67-68


How to cite this URL:
Bhat B D, Bhandary S, Naik R, Shetty D. Robotics in dentistry: Fiction or reality. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jun 28 ];4:67-68
Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2017/4/3/67/223052


Full Text

 Introduction



Dentistry has seen massive improvements and advancements from the traditional techniques to the digital world that has widened the scope of dental treatment and procedures.

Use of robotics in dentistry is caving in with all the necessary technologies which could further be developed and could be easily adapted. Some of the technologies are already being used in dentistry such as image-based simulation of implant surgery, followed by the use of surgical guides and creating digital impressions of preparations using an intraoral scanner, after which a milling device produces the restoration.

 Footsteps of Robots in Dentistry



Dental training robot

Currently, patient robots are being used for dental therapy training. The so-called “phantoms” consisting of a simple functional cephalic region and an arrangement of teeth are used for clinical training.[1]

Realistic human-like robots

Showa Hanako is a realistic robot which is designed to simulate a number of typical patient gestures and responses allowing dental students to experience what its like to work with a real patient.[1] Other robotic inventions such as the Geminoid can be remotely controlled being equipped with advanced motion-capture technology.[1] Another robot in the Geminoid family, the Geminoid-F, is capable of mimicking human facial expressions and even laughing. Other robots, such as the HRP-4, have learned to mimic human expressions and sound while singing.[2]

Simroid

An ideal addition for dental training is SIMROID which represents the possible next generation training model. It is a super-realistic dental training robot which is actually an upgrade to Simuloid, a less sophisticated dental training robot created back in 2007. What sets it apart is advancement in robotics and artificial intelligence that now makes it react with more lifelike and emotional responses. It is able to rate and evaluate the treatment, with two cameras monitoring the students every move, and readings from its sensors being recorded throughout the procedure.[1]

 Endo Micro Robot



Micro endodontic robot can provide safe, accurate, and reliable root canal treatment for patients by preventing problems identified with conventional techniques such as inadequate opening and overzealous tooth removal. With online monitoring and intelligent management, this machine will perform the automatic probing, drilling, cleaning, and filling of root canal.[3]

Specific objective for microrobot design includes:[1]

Reducing the reliance on the skills of the dentistMinimizing human errorOffering a method for precise diagnosis and treatment.

 Dental Nanorobots



Nanorobots are miniature devices measured on the scale of nanometers (1 nm equals one millionth of 1 mm) constructed with nanoscale or molecular components.[4] The possible treatment options of using nanorobots may include the application of nanotechnology to local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, the permanent cure of hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonded diamondized enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. Dental nanorobots could be used to destroy caries causing bacteria or to repair tooth blemishes where decay has set in, using computer to direct these tiny workers in their task.[5]

 Surgical Robots



A surgical robot system for maxillofacial surgery has been developed with which the surgeon interactively programs the robot during the surgery after which the robot performs the preprogrammed tasks.[1] Robotic technique is being used for milling of bone surfaces, drilling of holes, deep saw osteotomy cuts, selection of osteosynthesis plates, bending and intraoperative positioning in defined position, and orthognathic surgery planning.[6]

 Sensor-Equipped Implant Setup



Dental implant is a surgical treatment of tooth root replacement which is the most commonly used in prosthetic dentistry. At present, a new system of computer-assisted surgery has been developed for oral implantology which includes pre- and intraoperative procedures. The preoperative surgery is to use three-dimensional (3D) views as provided to enhance raw images obtained from the patient before operation. The main aim of this technique is to render a target region and a pathway associated with relative organs from computed tomography (CT) data. It provides 3D orientation of surgical instrument position and trajectory displayed on a monitor in real time within patient's 3D imaging data.[1] Yomi (FDA Cleared) is robotically assisted dental surgical system for implant placement. It is used to plan a procedure based on patients' CT scan.[7] Recently, it has been reported in South China morning post that a robot dentist has installed two dental implants on a female patient. It was stated that the robot followed a set of preprogrammed commands to install the implants which was fitted within a margin of error of 0.2–0.3 mm.[8]

 Conclusion



Although the robotic world of precision and accuracy is spoken of and implemented in many areas, it still comes with varied limitations. In developing countries, robots replacing humans is seen as scientific fiction. There is always a quest for advancement. Hence, robotic dentistry is a fiction that could be a reality in a matter of time.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

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