Journal of Dental Research and Review

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 49--51

Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population


Shail Kumari, Shirish M Bapat 
 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shail Kumari
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal - 462 037, Madhya Pradesh
India

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior cranial base (S-N) length in Class I and Class II division 1 individuals of Central India in two different age groups. Materials and Methods: Sample size comprised 120 individuals belonged to Central India. Individuals were divided into two groups: Group I comprised 60 young children (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 10–14 years (n = 30 Class I and n = 30 Class II division 1) and Group II comprised 60 young adults (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 18–22 years (n = 30 Class I and n = 30 Class II division 1). S-N length was measured from the traced sheets of lateral cephalograph of the study participants. The gender difference and differences in the group were calculated using the paired t-test. Results: No significant difference was found for S-N length in Class I and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was longer in young adults compared to young children in both Class I and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was found to be more in males compared to females in both Class I individuals and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian population (65.25 mm) compared to Caucasian population (71 mm). Conclusion: The present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age. S-N length was more in young adults than in young children and lesser in females compared to males. S-N length was found to be shorter in the Central Indian population compared to Caucasian population, so S-N length should be considered as population specific and not the same for all population.



How to cite this article:
Kumari S, Bapat SM. Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population.J Dent Res Rev 2019;6:49-51


How to cite this URL:
Kumari S, Bapat SM. Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 May 20 ];6:49-51
Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/49/270647


Full Text



 Introduction



In facial growth and development, most of the anatomic changes take place at the base of the cranium. It is very important to understand the complexities related to the development, architecture, and function of the cranial base, so the craniofacial variation can be well understood.[1] In 1916, the cranial base was found to be related with prognathism of the jaws and since then the cranial base is of much interest to orthodontists.[2] Cranial base angle has a tendency to reduce with age, and many researchers had done a study to find the age when the cranial base becomes stabilized in an individual.[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]

Cranial base might influence the maxillary and mandibular growth in different ways, and the maxilla is closely related and affected by the anterior cranial base.[8] There is evidence in the past that the cranial base differs among populations.[9],[10] Various authors had proved that cranial base morphology has an influence on the position of maxilla and mandible, thus helping in determining the skeletal pattern of an individual.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anterior cranial base (S-N) length of Class I and Class II division 1 from Central India in two age groups: one group comprised children from 10 to 14 years of age (young children) and another group comprised adults from 18 to 22 years of age (young adults).

 Materials and Methods



The study comprised 120 individuals belonged to Central India, who were divided into two main groups according to age. Group I comprised 60 young children (10–14 years) with 30 individuals (15 males and 15 females) each of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions. Group II comprised 60 young adults (18–22 years) with 30 individuals (15 males and 15 females) each of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee.

The age group ranged from 10 to 14 years and from 18 to 22 years were only included in the study. Individuals with no previous history of orthodontic treatment were only included in the study. Individuals with missing teeth, long-span/short-span crown and bridge, and large proximal caries were excluded from the study.

Same X-ray machine with the subject in the natural head position, with teeth in maximum intercuspation and lips in relax position to take lateral cephalograms. All radiographs were taken following proper precautionary measures. The radiographs were exposed at 85 kV/10 mA for 17.6 s (as recommended by the manufacturer). The film-to-source distance was 5 ft 2”. Magnification of all cephalograms was uniformly 1:1 to eliminate error of measurement by magnification. Cephalometric tracing was carried out on 0.003-inch matt lead acetate paper using soft black HB pencil by a single observer to eliminate the interobserver error. S-N length was measured from the data collected to assess the anterior cranial base length for Central Indian population.

The data collected were tabulated for each subgroup, and the mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated. The differences between gender and groups were calculated using paired t-test.

 Results



The measurements of S-N length for comparison of males and females and young children and young adults of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions are enumerated in [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]. S-N length was longer in Class I young adults (66.86 mm) compared to young children (63.63). In Class II division 1 individuals also, S-N length was longer in young adults (65.5 mm) compared to young children (62.8 mm). S-N length was found to be more in young adult males (70.2 mm) compared to young adult females (63.53 mm) in Class I individuals. Similar results were found in Class II division 1 individuals with S-N length more in young male children (64.53 mm) compared to young female children (61.06 mm). S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian population (65.25 mm) when compared to Caucasian population (71 mm).{Table 1}{Table 2}{Table 3}{Table 4}

 Discussion



The anterior cranial base is the length between sella turcica and nasion (S-N) and used for the analysis of the direction of craniofacial growth and dimension.[11] The present study assessed the length of the anterior cranial base (S-N) in Central Indian individuals in standard lateral cephalogram. S-N length is considered to be an important growth indicator for the head. S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian individuals compared to Caucasian populations. The mean S-N length in the Caucasian population is reported to be 71 mm.[1] In Central Indian individuals, it was 63.63 mm for young children and 66.86 mm for young adults. It was lesser in females compared to males, and this is probably due to linear measurements that are usually larger in males compared to females. A similar result was obtained by Yassir[12] in his study. Budiardjo et al.[13] and Malta et al.[14] found no significant difference in S-N length among males and females.

Variations in the length of S-N line can affect the spatial positioning of the maxilla and mandible and hence mandible in the anteroposterior plane. In the present study, no significant difference was seen between Class I and Class II division 1, which is contradictory to the study done by Kamak et al.,[15] where they found that S-N length was significantly more in Class II compared to Class I. The growth of the skull is considered to be complete by 7–10 years of age, but the present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age.[1]

Limitations of the present study were that cephalograms were used and manual tracings were done. Further research is required using cone-beam computed tomography and digital cephalometric to give further findings if any to give an exact conclusion.

 Conclusion



The present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age. S-N length was more in young adults than that in young children and lesser in females compared to males. S-N length was found to be shorter in the Central Indian individuals compared to Caucasian populations, so S-N length should be considered as population specific and not the same for all population.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest

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