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   2016| July-September  | Volume 3 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 28, 2016

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Diagnostic kits: An aid to periodontal diagnosis
Amit Mani, Raju Anarthe, PP Marawar, Rachita G Mustilwar, Anuradha Bhosale
July-September 2016, 3(3):107-113
Periodontal diseases have been diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examination traditionally, likewise the assessment of plaque using a plaque index, gingival inflammation with the bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss. Recently, for more precise molecular diagnostics and treatments, chairside diagnostic kits are used. This review describes chairside diagnostic test kits available in the market that can facilitate the clinical examination and the establishment of a proper diagnosis.
  14,898 2,262 2
Assessment of halitosis using the organoleptic method and volatile sulfur compounds monitoring
Mohammed Alasqah, Shoyab Khan, Mohammed Ali Elqomsan, Khalid Gufran, Zaheer Kola, Mariam Omer Bin Hamza
July-September 2016, 3(3):94-98
Introduction: Halitosis can be tested using two main methods, organoleptic and assessment of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), using an electronic meter like Halimeter. Therefore, the present study was conducted to measure the oral malodor of volunteers by means of the organoleptic method and VSCs monitoring and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the Halimeter in the diagnosis of halitosis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to compare the two diagnostic aids for halitosis. The study population included 110 volunteers, all males, between the ages of 18 and 45 years selected from academic staff, students, and patients of college. Evaluation and comparison of two main methods for halitosis were done, namely, organoleptic and Halimeter. Specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and disease prevalence were calculated for the sulfide monitor test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the diagnostic values of Halimeter to differentiate individuals with and without halitosis. Results: The correlation coefficient between VSC grading and organoleptic score (Kendall's tau-b) was −0.1090, which was not significant (P = 0.2170). Sensitivity and specificity of sulfide monitor grades for detecting individuals with and without halitosis were 20.75% and 66.67%, respectively. The PPV for the Halimeter was 36.67%, and the NPV was 47.50%. A total of 48.18% of all subjects were accurately identified and differentiated. The area under the ROC curve was 0.5790 (95% confidence interval: 0.4600-0.6980). Conclusion: In the present study, the Halimeter was not found to have a good correlation with the organoleptic method. However, due to the diverse influencing factors, proof of halitosis should always be obtained with two different methods.
  11,236 707 3
Prevalence of malocclusion and its common traits in Saudi males of Aseer region
Zakirulla Meer, Syed Sadatullah, Mohammad A Wahab, Abdel B Mustafa, Stephen A Odusanya, Pervez A Razak
July-September 2016, 3(3):99-102
Background: To evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and its common characteristics in young male population of Aseer province. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty Saudi male students between the age of 15 and 17 years were chosen from 3408 pupils studying in different middle schools of Abha region. Oral examination was performed to check the prevalence of malocclusion according to Angles classification and the individual traits including crowding, spacing, deep bite, anterior open bite, and anterior cross bite. Results: The prevalence of Class I, II, and III malocclusions was 62.3%, 28.4%, and 9.3%, respectively. Crowding was the most common individual trait (43.8%) while anterior open bite was the least prevalent (7.2%). Conclusion: There was high prevalence of malocclusion observed in the study population. Nearly half of them were suffering from crowding of teeth.
  4,700 427 5
Evaluation of enamel surface after orthodontic debonding and cleanup using different procedures: An in vitro study
Harjoy Khatria, Rajat Mangla, Hemant Garg, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir
July-September 2016, 3(3):88-93
Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of four protocols of adhesive remnant removal and polishing after bracket debonding on enamel surfaces using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and to compare the time spent to remove resin remnants. Materials and Methods: The present study was a comparative study, in which brackets were bonded on forty freshly extracted human premolar teeth. They were debonded after 24 h and removal of remnant adhesive to as close as possible to the original condition using tungsten carbide burs (TCBs) (30 flutted) with low-speed contra-angle handpiece, Super Snap ® discs (course, medium, fine, and superfine), TCB + Brownie and Greenie (BG) polishers, and TCB + Super Snap ® discs. The surfaces were evaluated under SEM and graded according to the modified surface roughness index. Time taken to remove the residual adhesive was recorded using a stopwatch. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Super Snap ® discs showed a smooth surface with minimal scratches. TCB resulted in an irregular enamel surface in SEM evaluation, showing horizontal scars with a consistent pattern and left remnants on the enamel surfaces. TCB followed by Super Snap ® discs produced some scratches on the enamel surface. The mean time was significantly higher in Group I than the other three groups (P = 0.000). The mean time was significantly lower in Group II than the other three groups (P = 0.000). TCB took the least amount of time followed by TCB + stainless steel and TCB + BG polishers. Conclusion: Enamel surface was restored as close to the original using the Super Snap ® discs. TCB produced a very rough surface, but it is an efficient and least time-consuming procedure. The resultant enamel surface with enamel scars needs to be finished by other polishing techniques after bulk removal using TCB as the sequential use of Super Snap ® discs and polishers is less aggressive in removing residual bonding resin and results in apparently better surface finish causing less damage to the enamel.
  4,152 501 4
Knowledge of Saudi parents toward the emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth: A cross-sectional survey
Nadiya Mosfer S AlGhamdi, Sharaf Abdullah Alothman, Asma Mohammed Assiri, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle, Rafi Ahmad Togoo
July-September 2016, 3(3):85-87
Introduction: Traumatic dentoalveolar injuries are frequent in children, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Parents are among the first people to deal with tooth avulsion among children at home or at play. This study, therefore, aimed to examine parental knowledge and attitudes about avulsed permanent teeth and their emergency treatment in children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 274 parents of children receiving care at KKU College of Dentistry, Abha. Informed consent was obtained after explaining the nature of the study and data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered in MS Excel Sheet, and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: Sixty-one percent of the parents reported dental trauma at home or school. 67.2% were not aware of the steps to be taken in tooth avulsion. The percentage for the source of information for avulsed tooth was a dentist (38.8%) and the internet (34.5%). 73.8% were unaware of the fact that permanent avulsed tooth can be replanted. 56.3% parents said that they would discard the knocked out tooth. Regarding knowledge about traumatic dental injuries 43.9% said it is imperative to know about it. Conclusion: This survey reflected the lack of awareness and adequate knowledge regarding the avulsed tooth. There is an imperative need for educating the parents regarding management of avulsed tooth permanent tooth.
  3,470 330 2
Multidisciplinary approach to full mouth rehabilitation
Zaid Aljeaidi
July-September 2016, 3(3):103-106
A 25-year-old Saudi male reported with pain, swelling in gums, multiple caries, and loss of teeth as a result of caries. A thorough workup and multidisciplinary approach helped to deliver patient with good smile, relief from pain, and gum swellings. Use of radiographs which included orthopantomogram, full mouth series of X-rays, and 4R system for complete analysis of patient gave satisfactory result and brought a smile back to patients face.
  3,325 458 -
Ethical practice: The need of the hour
Ravindra Manerikar
July-September 2016, 3(3):83-84
  2,076 220 -