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   2016| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 13, 2017

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Assessing the effect of pomegranate fruit seed extract mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation
Farin Kiany, Hossein Niknahad, Mohammad Niknahad
October-December 2016, 3(4):117-123
Background: Utilizing natural products in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases has been increased recently and could be of benefit to low-socioeconomic level communities. Mouthwashes are very useful in the reduction of microbial plaque and gingival inflammation. Pomegranate (Punica granatum ) is an essential medicinal plant with various pharmacological properties. In this study, the efficacy of a mouthwash prepared from the extract of pomegranate fresh fruit, was evaluated in the reduction of dental plaque and gingival bleeding. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four participants diagnosed as mild to moderate gingivitis participated in this double-blind clinical trial. Two weeks after thorough scaling and root planing, the participants were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group 1 - Persica, Group 2 - Matrica, Group 3 - pomegranate mouthwashes, and Group 4 - placebo. The participants were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwashes, twice daily, for 1 month. Pomegranate mouthwash was prepared from seeds of fresh pomegranate fruit. Periodontal parameters including plaque and bleeding indices were assessed at baseline (2 weeks after Phase I of treatment) and 1 month after using mouthwashes. Results: Comparison of the plaque index showed a significant reduction from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in reduction of plaque when comparing four groups. Assessment of the bleeding on probing revealed a significant decrease from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05). The three herbal mouthwashes reduced the bleeding index significantly more than the placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pomegranate mouthwash was beneficial in improving gingival status, including reducing plaque and bleeding indices. Its effect was comparable to two routinely used herbal mouthwashes.
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Resurgence of syphilis: Challenges for dental care providers
Anil Sukumaran
October-December 2016, 3(4):115-116
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Evaluation of oral manifestations and oral health status among pediatric human immunodeficiency virus patients-under anti-retroviral therapy: A cross-sectional study
Monika Aroquiadasse, Jonathan Mariappan Daniel, Srinivasan Subramanian Vasudevan, Jimsha Vanathan Kumaran
October-December 2016, 3(4):124-128
Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome disease has evolved to become a social and economic catastrophe, with far-reaching implications affecting every phase of life of the diseased individual. Data on adults and children diagnosed with HIV infection are useful for determining populations needing prevention and treatment services. Oral lesions may be the presenting symptoms of HIV infection and may differ entirely from those manifested in the adult population. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV related oral lesions among pediatric HIV patients and to assess the oral health status of HIV infected children residing in a selected childcare facility in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2015 in child care facility for HIV infected children located in Puducherry U.T, India. All children <18 years, who are diagnosed with HIV infection and are put on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or pre-ART care, were included in the study. After obtaining informed consent from the care-givers and assent of the children, they were interviewed and examined by a team comprising a qualified dental surgeon and a trained physician. Results: Majority of the children were under first-line ART (73%) and were on ART for more than 4 years. The CD4 count of 23 (52.3) was between 500–1000 cells/μL. The recent viral load assay in 32 (72.7) patients was <150/not detected. Tooth decay was the most common oral manifestation with 28 (63.6) being affected. Nonspecific lymphadenopathy 26 (59.1) was the most common coexisting systemic illness. Conclusion: This study proves that constant surveillance by monitoring the general health status, CD4 counts, viral load coupled with stringent ART care has improved the overall quality of life of these children and consequently resulted in lesser oral manifestations.
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Knowledge of emergency management of avulsed tooth among undergraduate preclinical and clinical dental students: Questionnaire-based study
Miryana Amir Azmi, Elhadi Mohieldin Awooda
October-December 2016, 3(4):140-143
Background: Dental students in the community are considered as dentists and are expected or might be asked to provide emergency aid, especially when the problem related to the teeth as in the case of avulsion. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the knowledge and practice of 2nd- and 5th-year undergraduate dental students regarding management of tooth avulsion. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study among registered and regular attendee 2nd- and 5th-year dental students from nine dental schools in Khartoum state. The study was conducted during period from November 2015 to February 2016. Sample size was 309 (186 from 2nd year and 98 from 5th year) out of total number of 1575. Participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of emergency management of avulsed tooth. Comparison between variables by Chi-square test with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Majority of 5th-year students have enough information about avulsion and its emergency management while very few of 2nd-year students have the correct knowledge. Only 12.4% of 2nd-year students mentioned the correct storage media where an avulsed tooth can be placed compared to 64.3% of 5th-year students. There was also no statistical significant difference of P = 0.186 when knowledge about avulsion in students who personally experienced dental trauma was compared to those who did not have an experience of dental trauma. Conclusion: Second-year undergraduate dental students had poor knowledge about emergency management of avulsed tooth. Experience of dental trauma and students gender have no significant association with the management of tooth avulsion.
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Retrospective evaluation of the clinical management of patients with periodontal abscesses attending a teaching hospital
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye, Clement Chinedu Azodo
October-December 2016, 3(4):134-139
Aim: This study aimed to examine the clinical management of patients who attended a Nigerian teaching hospital with periodontal abscesses. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective study among patients who attended the Periodontics Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, between January 2008 and December 2015. Patients and Methods: Information about the diagnosis was obtained from the departmental log book, and case notes were retrieved from record department. Data collection elicited information on age, sex, tribe, frequency of tooth brushing, dental attendance, medical history, clinical features, involved tooth/teeth, and treatment received. Statistical Analysis Used: Epi info version 3.5.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Patients aged between 15 and 87 years, with a mean age of 35.53 ± 19.30 years. Majority of patients were males, had minor ethnic extractions, had some form of education, first dental clinic attendees, indulged in once-daily toothbrushing, fully dentate, and had fair/poor oral hygiene. A total of 8.8% and 31.6% of the participants smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol, respectively. A fifth of the participants had systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer disease. Majority of the participants (91.2%) had severe pain. About two-fifths had periodontal abscess around the incisors and the molars. The upper right quadrant was mostly involved (31.6%). Two-fifth of the patients had extraction done. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed periodontal abscess as a severely painful condition in naÏve dental patients, successfully treated mainly through extraction of the implicated tooth/teeth. This implies that oral health awareness and regular dental attendance may prevent its occurrence.
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A comparative and observational assessment of gingival condition and il-1β level in vitiligo and nonvitiligo patients
Kharidhi Laxman Vandana, Halappa Sasvehalli Shalini, Roopa Patil
October-December 2016, 3(4):129-133
Introduction: Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disorder that causes loss of skin pigment. Loss of skin pigment in oral mucosa may also become prominent and tend to be more noticeable in people with darker skin. There is much less information concerning this condition in gingiva. Therefore, an initial attempt has been made to compare clinical gingival status and biochemical assessment in vitiligo and nonvitiligo patients. Materials and Methods: This observational pilot study includes 45 patients of age group 20–40 years were divided as nonvitiligo pigmented gingivitis as observational 1 group, nonvitiligo nonpigmented gingivitis as control group, and vitiligo with gingivitis as observational 2 group. The clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), dummett oral pigmentation index, and biochemical parameter such as gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels. Results: On intergroup examination using unpaired t -test and statistical analysis, vitiligo group showed highly significant results in GI (P < 0.001) and GBI (P < 0.001) than nonvitiligo group. Furthermore, the GCF IL-1β levels were found to be lesser (34.16 ng/ml) in vitiligo group as compared to nonvitiligo groups. Conclusion: At similar plaque level, higher gingival inflammation and bleeding were found in vitiligo patients. The loss of pigmentation of gingiva was evident in vitiligo patients. The possible defensive role of melanin is evident clinically.
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