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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 3, 2018

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Candida species detection in potentially malignant and malignant disorders of the oral mucosa: A meta-analysis
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, Maria J Alcaide-Salamanca
April-June 2018, 5(2):35-41
Background: Candida species, mainly Candida albicans, have been related to dysplastic changes and malignant transformation of different oral mucosal lesions. Objective: The objective was to assess the possible influence of Candida detection in oral leukoplakia (OL), oral lichen planus (OLP), and oral cancerous lesions. Search Methods: A PubMed search through February 2018, using the following MESH terms, was performed: “Candida,” “precancerous conditions,” “mouth,” and “mouth neoplasms.” Selection Criteria: The selection criteria included studies with findings on Candida detection in premalignant and malignant oral lesions. Data Collection and Analysis: For continuous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as mean differences using the inverse variance method and for dichotomous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as odds ratios using Haenszel—Mantel method, both with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Fifteen studies on Candida detection in premalignant and malignant oral lesions were included in this meta-analysis. Nearly 61.5% of oral cancers, 32.2% of OLs, and 29.1% of OLP lesions were infected by Candida species. Candida infection does not increase the risk for developing OL (P = 0.32) or OLP (P = 0.31). A higher mean age, male gender, tobacco consumption, and location of the lesions on tongue or floor of the mouth were factors that did not have a significant influence on developing Candida-infected OL. Dysplastic OLs were 10.62 times more likely to be Candida-infected lesions. A greater number of OL lesions infected by Candida species than OLP lesions were found (P < 0.01). Having oral cancer increased 4.92-fold risk of Candida infection. No statistically significant association between Candida-infected oral cancer lesions and Candida-infected OL lesions was observed (P = 0.21). Conclusions: Candida infection worsens the biological behavior of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.
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Journal's peer-review process: Point of view from the triad (contributor, peer reviewer and the editor)
Pradnya Kakodkar
April-June 2018, 5(2):33-34
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and perception about biostatistics among faculty and postgraduate students in a dental institution, Bengaluru City — A cross-sectional survey
BK Sujatha, Mayur Nath T. Reddy, Sapna Vijayan
April-June 2018, 5(2):54-58
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and perception about biostatistics among faculty and postgraduate students in a dental institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among faculty and postgraduate students in a dental institution, Bengaluru city. A questionnaire containing 20 items on the domains knowledge, attitude, and perception and demographic detail, was administered. The response rate was obtained using a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5. Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's α (0.80), and face validity was confirmed with the help of experts. Results: The knowledge about biostatistics was better among postgraduate students (mean 1.15, standard deviation [SD] 0.12) when compared to staff members (mean 0.89, SD 0.42). Regarding attitude toward biostatistics majority of the staff members felt statistics is complicated (mean 1.10, SD 0.13), it is best left to experts (mean 0.98, SD 0.01) when compared to postgraduate students (mean 0.84 SD 0.60, mean 0.69 SD 0.52) respectively, Majority of the staff members felt difficult to write the statistical section in scientific writing (mean 0.98, SD 0.13) when compared to postgraduate students (mean 0.78, SD 0.42). All the results were found to be statistically significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Postgraduates students were found to have better knowledge about biostatistics when compared to staff members, majority of the staff members felt biostatistics is complicated, difficult to write statistical section in scientific writing when compared to postgraduate students.
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The Criteria and Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions in Undergraduate Dental Examinations
Hassan Mohamed Abouelkheir
April-June 2018, 5(2):59-64
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate past midterm multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations in oral and the maxillofacial radiology course by identifying item-writing flaws (IWFs) along with cognitive level of each item as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy. Afterward, the quality of MCQs is determined by the Facility Index (FI) and Discrimination Index (DI) before and after removal of IWFs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Dental School of Riyadh ELM university, Riyadh, KSA. It consisted of reviewing the past midterm MCQ examinations of last semester (2nd semester 2016—2017) in three courses, namely advanced radiology (MidT1) for Level 12 dental students, radiographic interpretation of oral and maxillofacial radiology for level 8 dental students (MidT2), and finally, radiation physics and techniques for Level 5 dental students (MidT3). Identification of IWFs as well as cognitive level of MCQs was determined and then the quality of MCQ examinations was determined by FI and DI before and after removal of IWFs. Results: A total of 120 MCQs were evaluated and revised. The overall percentage of IWFs was 55%. In cognitive-level analysis, there was an increase in lower levels after removal of the IWFs from 68% to 88% and decrease in higher cognitive levels from 33% to 13%. The FI average level was increased after removal of IWFs from 50% to 55%, 77.5%, and 80% in MidT2, MidT5, and MidT6, respectively. DI average level also increased after removal of IWFs from 20% to 30% and finally from 42.5% to 57.5%. Conclusion: After removal of IWFs, cognitive levels as well as FI and DI were improved.
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Relationship Between Malocclusion and Temporomandibualr Disorders Among 12-18 Year Old Adolescents in Davangere City-A Cross Sectional Survey
BK Sujatha, Puja C Yavagal, L Nagesh, Mary Shimi S. Gomez
April-June 2018, 5(2):65-68
Introduction: Masticatory system consists of the organs and structures primarily functioning in mastication. Health-care professionals are faced with the stark reality that the most common reason for which the patients seek medical care is due to pain or dysfunction. Even today, the relationship between malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) remains controversial. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between malocclusion and TMD in a selected sample of 12—18-year-old school and college going adolescents in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: An observational, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1600 school and college-going adolescents using a self-structured pro forma to record general information, the examination of malocclusion according to the Dental Aesthetic Index introduced by Cons et al. which was adopted by WHO, examination of TMD as per the WHO guidelines, and perceived stress scale by Sheldon Cohen. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, Z-test using SPSS software version 18, IBM, Chicago, USA. A statistical significance level was fixed at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Out of 1600 participants, 47.3% were found to have malocclusion, and 52.7% were found to have no malocclusion, and there was a statistically significant relationship between malocclusion and TMD (P = 0.002) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.54 and confidence interval (CI) = 1.2—2.0. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion was found to be 47.3% which was significantly higher in females when compared to males, and there was a statistically significant relationship between malocclusion and TMD (P = 0.002) with an OR of 1.54 and CI = 1.2—2.0.
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Attitude of practicing dentists towards vaccine-preventable infectious diseases: A cross-sectional study
Mashael Khaled Althobati, Safeyah Alqarni, Salha H Huaylah, Fatimah Al-hamdi, Balsam Al-Almai, Rafi A Togoo
April-June 2018, 5(2):42-49
Background: The vaccination of dentists against various vaccine-preventable infections is the most important measure of primary prevention against such diseases which would otherwise prove fatal for both the dentists and their patients. Aim: A study was conducted among the general as well as specialist dentists to evaluate their attitude towards vaccine-preventable infectious diseases (VPIDs) in Asir, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was formulated and sent through E-mails to the dentists (both general and specialist dentists) who gave the consent in participation. For most of the questions, a 5-point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The responses were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Majority (76.5%) of the respondents strongly agree that a dentist should be compulsorily immunized against Hepatitis B, while 11.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed for the same. The difference between the responses was found to be highly significant (P = 0.0000**). Nearly 42.4% of the dental professionals agreed, while 27.3% strongly agreed that dentists should get vaccinated against influenza, compulsorily. Most of the respondents (19.7%) neither agreed nor disagreed that the dentists should be compulsorily vaccinated against influenza. Conclusion: It is concluded that dentists were aware as well as vaccinated against most of the VPIDs, except for influenza which was not considered much harmful by the subjects that resulted in less section of dental professionals being vaccinated against influenza.
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An in vitro evaluation of the efficiency of various disinfection and sterilization methods to decontaminate dental handpieces
Sreelekshmi Sreekumar, Kurian Varghese, Joshy P Abraham, JJ Jaysa
April-June 2018, 5(2):50-53
Background: Improper decontamination methods employed in the dental clinics to clean dental handpieces often lead to cross-transmission of diseases among patients and dental professionals. Aims and Objectives: The present study evaluates the efficiency of moist heat sterilization using autoclave and disinfection methods such as alcohol and a commercially available disinfectant (Decident™) to decontaminate dental handpieces. Materials and Methods: For the present study, sixty contaminated handpieces were selected and divided into four groups of 15 handpieces. They were then contaminated using a mixture of Streptococcus salivarius, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Sterilization using autoclave and disinfection procedures using a commercially available disinfectant (Decident™) and 70% isopropyl alcohol was done on each group. The handpieces were then subjected to manual scrubbing followed by bacteriological culture. Results: The study revealed that moist autoclave is the best way to decontaminate the dental handpieces. Further, it was shown that proper cleaning of the instrument prior to autoclave, as recommended by the American Dental Association's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is required for 100% efficiency. Statistically significant presence of S. salivarius and E. coli was found in samples disinfected with Decident™ and 70% isopropyl alcohol, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed that moist autoclave, following the procedures recommended by the CDC, still remains as the gold standard of sterilization of dental handpieces.
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