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   2019| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 12, 2020

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Rubber dam isolation in clinical adhesive dentistry: The prevalence and assessment of associated radiolucencies
Mohammed A Alqarni, Vinod Babu Mathew, Ibrahim Yahya A. Alsalhi, Abdulrahman Saad F. Alasmari, Ahmad Yahia Almojathel Alqisi, Raed Ali H. Asiri, Shafait Ullah Khateeb
October-December 2019, 6(4):97-101
Aim: This study aims to identify the prevalence of the use of rubber dam (RD) for isolation during resin composite restorations in a clinical scenario. It also aims to evaluate restorations done with and without RD for radiolucencies present postoperatively. Methods: A total of 50 voluntarily participating dentists were asked to do posterior composite restorations for primary caries lesions affecting the occluso-proximal surfaces. The isolation protocols followed were noted, and postoperative bitewing radiographs were evaluated independently by two investigators. The presence of radiolucencies between the tooth-restorative interface and in the body of the restoration was assessed and statistically evaluated using Chi-square test at a significance level of P≤ 0.05. Results: The results showed that 71.5% of the restorations were not done under RD isolation. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of radiolucent areas seen in restorations done with and without RD. Conclusion: This study shows a low percentage of clinicians use RD for isolation during composite restorations. It also indicates that radiolucent areas are more often associated with restorations done without RD isolation. This study stresses that there is a need to change the clinician's convictions about isolation protocols followed during composite restorations.
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Effect of tooth mousse on enamel erosion – An in vitro study
Babita Karda, Neetika Singh, Charan Kamal Kaur, Isha Aggarwal
October-December 2019, 6(4):92-96
In industrialized countries, dental erosion has gained much more attention due to decrease in dental caries. Remineralization of carious lesion can be enhanced by using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which is an effective remineralizing agent. Aim: The study is performed to assess the after effect of Tooth Mousse (CPP-Casein Phosphopeptide-ACP) paste on dental erosion produced by drinks by applying contact profilometer. Materials and Methods: Twenty human teeth (molar and premolar) were collected from patients with either compromised periodontal conditions or extracted due to orthodontic purpose. Samples were categorized into four groups, i.e., Group-I-Coca Cola (10), Group-II-Frooti (10), Group-III-Coca-Cola + Tooth Mousse (10), and Group-IV-Frooti + Tooth Mousse (10). Ph is calibrated by using pH meter with digital electrode. At baseline and after erosive exposure, surface roughness of samples was calculated using profilometer. The values were then statistically interpreted using Bonferroni Post-hoc test. Results: In the present study, after remineralization by Tooth Mousse (Group III and Group IV) change in surface roughness (Ra values) after erosive challenge and remineralization by Tooth Mousse were significant for Group III (Coke + Tooth Mousse) when compared with Group-I (Coke), whereas it was nonsignificant for Group – IV (Frooti + Tooth Mousse) when compared to other Group-II. Conclusion: The present study shows protective effect of CCP-ACP paste on dental erosion that is caused by drinks.
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Laser confocal refractive microscopy and early detection of oral cancer: A narrative review
RJ Sameen, V Bindushree, Vijeev Vasudevan, Nimi Susan Mathew, D Devaraju, TG Shrihari
October-December 2019, 6(4):77-82
Laser confocal refractive microscopy is a modern technique that aids in the detection of early malignancies in recent years. However, it is inappropriately explored in oral oncology. To date, the gold standard for diagnosis of oral malignancies is still a biopsy for histopathological examination as this is an invasive method, and it causes discomfort for the patients. In this concern, the focus of this present article is to understand how this laser confocal microscopy could be used in the diagnosis of oral malignancies without the actual need for biopsy. Thus, it can be an effective noninvasive diagnostic aid for detecting oral malignancies.
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Smartphone usage among female students of a private dental institution in North Kerala: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vanishree Talapady, Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat, Praveen Dinatius, CB Thasneem, Sumiyya Ali, Sruthi Prasanna, Ashna Salim
October-December 2019, 6(4):83-87
Background: Smartphones are now a part of our lives. We are increasingly depending on smartphones for almost everything. This technological prodigy has started infiltrating every aspect in our day to day lives to alarming levels. Objective: To determine the pattern of usage of smartphones by female students of dental institution in North Kerala. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 152 female students. A closed ended, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the number of hours spent, reasons for using, most commonly accessed applications, pattern of usage in response to different situations encountered, and whether or not they experience anxiety if the phone is not in possession. In addition, background data such as age, gender, place of residence, and year of study were also elicited. Student's t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare mean hours spent with respect to place of residence and year of study. Results: Everyone possessed a smartphone and spent about 5.1 ± 4 h on its usage. Final years spent significantly more time on their smartphone (P = 0.03). Sixty six percent reportedly checked their smartphones even when there was no notification. About 52% resorted to “phubbing” to end a conversation. Almost 80% accessed their smartphones during stress and 61% stayed awake longer than usual to access smartphones. WhatsApp™ was the most commonly accessed application, and 59.8% used their smartphones for social networking. Conclusion: The variables used in the study indicate trends reflecting increased usage and dependence on smartphones. This is unhealthy and needs effective strategy to create awareness among the masses for a balanced use of smartphones.
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive oil on the prevention of dental erosion: An In vitro study
Alaa Osman Ayoub, Elhadi Mohieldin Awooda
October-December 2019, 6(4):88-91
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the anti-erosive effect of olive oil against citric acid on bovine teeth and to compare the effectiveness with that of fluoride varnish. Materials and Methods: An observational analytical cross-sectional study among forty recently extracted bovine incisor teeth. From each tooth, a cubic of 4 mm × 4 mm was cut. Five surfaces of the cubic were coated by nail varnish leaving only the enamel window uncovered. The specimen was divided into four groups randomly: Group 1: five teeth (control group) nothing used, Group 2: five teeth immersed in olive oil for 6 h, Group 3: five teeth immersed in olive oil for 48 h, and Group 4: 10 teeth immersed in fluoride varnish 48 h. Then, each specimen was immersed in citric acid (pH: 2.3) for 15 and 30 min. The amount of calcium dissolved was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Different variables were statistically compared by t-test and ANOVA test with the level of significant set at P≤ 0.05. Results: The mean of calcium dissolution among the control group at 15 min was 2.8 mg/dl, while dissolution in 30 min was 6.1 mg/dl. When comparing the effect of exposure time duration of all specimens in citric acid, it was found that calcium dissolution increased in 30 min exposure than in 15 min exposure. Emersion of teeth in olive oil for 6 h was effective in reducing enamel erosion when exposed to citric acid 1% at 15 min, while in 30-min exposure to citric acid was less effective and to a lesser degree than fluoride varnish (sodium fluoride). Conclusion: Bovine teeth immersed in olive oil for 6 h resist the erosive effect of citric acid exposure for 15 min. Olive oil has less effect on the prevention of erosive tooth wear when compared to fluoride varnish.
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Dentist's destiny in disquieting oral cancers: An Indian scenario
Rajalakshmi Geetha
October-December 2019, 6(4):102-103
Oral cancer is a foremost problem in India where it ranks among the top three types of cancer in the country and is considered an epidemic in recent centuries. Oral cancer is the second most common group of malignancies in males and ranks in the fourth position in females in India. Oral cancers are usually preceded by clinically evident potentially malignant disorders, which can be recognized through oral screening. Early diagnosis and proper management can avert the cancerous potential of the lesion. Although oral cancer rates are alarming, existing situation of dentist in India is devastating. A number of credentials are available in medical literature highlighting the oral cancer rates and problems of dentists in India, but still not much critical steps are taken by the government to improve both situations. Moreover, the oral cavity can reflect and unravel many of the human body's internal ambiguity; in developing country like India, most people do not tend to set the same significance on dental health as they do on their medical health.
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